I found this list of the contents of an ancient Egyptian maths manuscript, papyrus 10057, on the chapter on the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus dating from c.1650 BC, in Henrietta Midonick’s *The Treasury of Mathematics: 1* (Harmondsworth: Penguin 1965). The book’s a collection of ancient maths texts from around the world, with relevant commentaries and explanations. I found it interesting because it shows the kind of maths problems ancient Egyptian scribes were interested in and had to deal with, and which were being taught in the schools. The papyrus is divided into three books

**Book 1**

Division of various numbers of loaves equally between 10 men.

A group of completion calculations involving multiplication of fractions.

Another group of completion calculations involving simple addition of fractions.

Arithmetical solution by trial of equations of the first degree.

Similar equations involving the bushel.

Division of loaves between men in unequal proportions

**Book 2**

Part 1: Volumes and cubic content in corn.

Cylindrical containers

Rectangular parallelopipedal containers.

Expression in correct form of 1/10, 1/20 up to 1/100 of a bushel, disguised as a sum in cubic content.

Part 2. Areas

Area of square and circle compared.

Rectangle.

Circle.

Triangle.

Truncated Triangle

Trapezoid

Division of given area of land into equal sized fields

Part 3: Batter, or the angle of a slope.

Book 3: Miscellaneous Problems in Arithmetic

Multiplication of fractions

Proportionate values of precious metals.

Division of loaves in unequal proportions.

Division of barley into shares in arithmetical progression.

Division of loaves in unequal proportions.

Daily portion of a yearly ration of fat.

Reckoning of livestock.

Division of 100 bushels of corn in unequal proportions.

So-called *pefsu*-reckonings. Conversion of grain into bread and beer, and the barter of these last.

Geometrical progression.

Conversion of fractions of the bushel (1/2,1/4, 1/8 etc) in *henu*.

Food estimate for a poultry yard.

Estimate of food of an ox-stall.

**Additions.**

Unintelligible group of signs.

Fragment of accounts.

Calendrical entries.

There’s considerable interest in ancient Egypt among Blacks, because it’s been seen since at least the early 19th century as a great Black civilisation. Despite attempts to improve the educational performance of Black children, they still lag behind other ethnic groups like Whites and Asians in schools. I wondered if a way round this would be to try to stimulate their, and other races’ imaginations, with maths problems based on those of the ancient Egyptians. You wouldn’t want to teach them ancient Egyptian mathematical methods, as they’re very different and more convoluted than modern methods and some of them are frankly wrong. But I think you could set kids problems based on the kind of problems budding scribes were taught. You could possibly combine it with Black History month and have the kids dressed up as ancient Egyptians and learn a bit about the civilisation as well.

**Reproduction of a page from the maths manuscript.**