Radio 4 Programme Next Thursday on the Repatriation of Looted Museum Exhibits Following Black Lives Matter

The Radio Times also states that next Thursday on Radio 4 at 11.30 am there’s a documentary on the debate about the repatriation of looted African artefacts now on display in British museums. The blurb for it on page 125 of the Radio Times runs

In the wake of protesters in Bristol pulling down a statue of 17th-century slave trader Edward Colston, Gary Younge talks to museum curators as they review what is on display.

There’s an additional piece by Simon O’Hagan on the previous page, 124, which adds

Museums might be closed, but curators are keeping busy reassessing what they have on display – minds focused by the toppling of the statue of slave trader Edward Colston in Bristol in June. In the words of one curator, “in Britain you’re never more than 150 miles rom a looted African object.”

Presented by Gary Younge, who discovers that when the public is re-admitted to museums after lockdown, there is a distinct possibility that some display cases may have notable absences.

The debate over the return of looted and seized objects to indigenous communities around the world has been going on for several decades. Much of it is about the display of human remains. A few years ago a series about the British Museum showed that august institution repatriating a set of indigenous Australian burials to Tasmanian people from which they were seized. It’s not just African and indigenous peoples demanding that their ancestors and their property should be returned. The Greeks have famously been demanding the return of the Elgin Marbles for decades, if not since they very moment Lord Elgin collected them in the 19th century. In very many cases, I don’t doubt that the moral argument is with those demanding their return, and that it’s the right thing to do.

The mention of the toppling of Edward Colston’s statue in Bristol adds a dimension that complicates the issue. The repatriation of these objects is supposed to be about modern, western museums correcting the moral injustices of an imperial past. But many of the looted objects themselves are the products of slaving societies, and were seized by British forces during wars fought to extirpate the slave trade.

The Benin Bronzes are case in point. These are superbly sculpted bronze heads, which were made as part of shrines to the chief’s oba. Literally meaning ‘right arm’, the word also denotes his spiritual power, rather like the numa of the pagan Roman emperors. However, Benin, then Dahomey, was a major centre of the African slave trade. It had a plantation economy centred on cotton production like the American Deep South, and was a major exporter. So much so that the British launched a war against them from 1850 to 1852 after their king, Guezo, refused to give it up and continued trading. The bronzes were seized by the victorious British forces.

Nobody was talking about their repatriation until the 1980s, when ‘African radical’ and the highly controversial leader of Brent council, Bernie Grant, demanded their return. I’ve no doubt that Grant was motivated by genuine indignation about the humiliation of an African nation by the British empire. But there is an irony here in that such a very outspoken opponent of anti-Black racism should have been seeking to return objects that had been taken as part of military action against an African slave state. And one that had absolutely no qualms, and grew rich, from enslaving the ancestors of Black Brits, West Indians and Americans like Grant.

Ditto with some of the objects that may have been returned to Ethiopia. A year or so ago the I reported that a particularly holy cross belonging to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which had been seized by the British army in the 19th century, had also been repatriated to its country of origin. I wondered if the relic had also been looted in a similar campaign launched in that century to stop Abyssinian slave-raiding across the border into Sudan and what is now Kenya. If so, then it could be argued that it should not be repatriated, as it was a legitimate spoil in a war the British were justified in waging.

And let’s not be under any illusion that the African slaving nations wouldn’t also have enslaved the British servicemen they fought. One of the documents I found cataloguing the materials on slavery in the Empire and Commonwealth Museum in Bristol was a parliamentary blue book on the British action against the African slavers in Lagos. One of the chiefs involved stated that if he won, he was going to shave the head of the British commander and make him carry his palanquin. Which sounds very much like a declaration that he intended to enslave him.

I think the area of the repatriation of objects looted from Africa is much more complicated morally than is being discussed and presented, and that African involvement in and culpability for the slave trade is being quietly glossed over in order to present a cosy, straightforward narrative of imperial aggression and guilt.

 

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4 Responses to “Radio 4 Programme Next Thursday on the Repatriation of Looted Museum Exhibits Following Black Lives Matter”

  1. trev Says:

    “…quietly glossed over in order to present a cosy, straightforward narrative of imperial aggression and guilt”.

    Yes by the sounds of it I think you’re right.
    I wonder if the Ethiopians would consider returning the Arc of the Covenant to Israel seeing as they claim to have it?

    • beastrabban Says:

      Good question. I doubt it, somehow, though arks are used in Ethiopian churches. The term can mean any box being used for the purpose, and many aren’t that old. A little while ago there was programme in which a western bloke went round Ethiopia looking at their splendid ancient churches, looking for the Ark of the Covenant. He finally tracked it down to a small church, which he couldn’t enter as he wasn’t a member of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. And so he couldn’t see for himself.

      • trev Says:

        It’s allegedly kept in the Church of St. Mary in Axum, guarded by a solitary monk who is reputedly chosen for the job as a child. Only he, and of course any Levite, can touch it and live.

  2. jaynel62 Says:

    I don’t feel such a Complex issue as Global Slavery cannot begin to be addressed until there is some level of both trust and respect between all parties. I doubt there are many of the worlds older nations that have not been involved in slavery at some time.

    I am in no way claiming the issue should not be acknowledged and indeed discussed, but I do believe we ought to be focusing more on the abolition of the practice, in all its forms.

    Considering historical behaviours is only a part of dealing with the real issues and, for me, this is about the manner all people act towards those considered to be different. To do this regarding slavery, is to understand it is a far wider issue than the enslavement of Black Africans by European/Americans; some historians claim the oldest nations of slave traders were Arabs .

    This complexity will need to be fully recognised to include every nation/race guilty of practising such, to acknowledge all types of slavery and be delivered in a manner that does not require people to be responsible for historical guilt.

    Unless managed in an open, honest and respectful manner I fear we will merely continue to talk about the Who is to blame rather than the What we can do to stop the practice of slavery

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